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حسين جبر حسين الداود

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حسين جبر حسين الداود تدريسي في كلية العلوم للبنات يلقب استاذ مساعد مقرر قسم في قسم علوم الحياة













تحديثاتي الحالية
Effect of Accelerated Ageing Conditions on Physiological and Biochemical Changes
of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) Seeds
HUSSEIN J. HUSSEIN1*, ODA M. YASSER2, ABDULLA I. SHAHEED3, A.B. ABIDI4
1Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, Babil – Iraq.
2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon. Babil – Iraq.
3Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Babylon. Babil – Iraq.
4Department of Biochemistry, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Techonology &
Science-Allahabad-India
*corresponding author - huss2010feb@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds were subjected to
accelerated ageing treatment for, 3 and 7 days at 45 ±1 0C and
100% relative humidity. These artificially aged seeds were
compared with control (Unaged seeds) for evaluation of vigour
and enzymes activity in seeds. Accelerated ageing of Sunflower
seeds up to three days had significant effect on moisture content,
germination percentage, Amadori products and glutathione
reductase and peroxidase activity. However, further increase in
ageing period caused increased in moisture content and a
decrease in germination percentage, Amadori products and
enzymes activity. Germinability was lost completely at 7 days
of accelerated ageing. In addition, the reduction in germination
percentage there was a decrease in germination speed index
and seed vigour index. . Finally, the results revealed that
accelerated ageing caused depression of Sunflower seeds
viability through the above parameters.
Key words : Seed deterioration, sunflower, biochemical, seeds.
Seed deterioration is a serious problem in developing
countries where seeds are stored in places usually without a
proper control of humidity and temperature. Temperature and
seed moisture content (and/or relative humidity) are the main
factors influencing seed deterioration and viability loss in
storage (James, 1967). A seed lot consists of a population of
seeds, which may be genetically and physically similar, but
vary, in degree of deterioration from relatively non deteriorated
to completely dead (100-0%). Deterioration within a lot is on
an individual seed basis (Delouche and Baskin, 1973).
However, AA is an important procedure for understanding
the events that lead to the loss of seed viability. AA damages
DNA and mRNA (Villiers, 1983), and causes biochemical
deterioration of the stored material (Murthy, et. al., 2003). And
reduces the vigor of seedling and early plantlet development
shortly after germination (Bailly, 2002). AA techniques have
great potential for understanding the mechanism of ageing
and associated deterioration processes of seeds (McDonald,
1999). Meanwhile, the process of deterioration under
accelerated ageing conditions are essentially similar to those
under normal conditions, Whereas, the major differences is
that the rate of deterioration is much faster, thus, making it
possible to be determinate (Aiazzi, et. al., 1996; Goel and
Sheoran, 2003; Vieira, et. al., 2004). In addition, Seed
deterioration can be defined as the loss of quality, viability
and vigor either due to ageing or effect of adverse
environmental factors. The rate of deterioration rapidly
increases with increase in either seed moisture content or
temperature of storage (Ellis et al., 1985). The principle of this
method is based on the artificial acceleration of the
deterioration rate of seeds, by exposing them to high
temperature and relative humidity levels, which are considered
as the most prominent environmental factors with respect to
the intensity and velocity of deterioration (McDonald, 1999).
Consequently, an accelerated ageing stress test exposes seeds
for short periods (1 to 8 days) to high temperature (40 to 45 oC)
and high relative humidity (greater than 90%). During the test,
seeds absorb moisture from the humid environment along
with the high temperature, causing rapid seed ageing. High
vigor seed lots withstand these stress conditions and
deteriorate more slowly than low vigor seed lots. After
accelerated ageing, high vigor seed lots remained high in
germination, while the germination of low vigor seed lots was
reduced (ISTA, 2004). The aim of the present research was to
investigate the possible effects of accelerated ageing upon
seeds deterioration (physiological and biochemical changes)
of the local Sunflower seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
Experiments were performed on one Iraqi cultivar
(Helianthus annus L.) was used for the study. The seed
materials were obtained directly from the field of Babil
governorate in the season of 2009-2010. Seeds were surface
sterilized using 5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes
and rinsed thoroughly in distilled water. The seeds were dried
at 25°C for 24 hours in the laboratory as described for pea by
(Khan, et. al., 2003). Seed material was stored in dark plastic
containers at 5C° until use.
Accelerated ageing treatment
Seeds were aged acceleratedly at (45 ±1C°) and 100%
relative humidity up to 14 days. Seeds were aged in glass
desiccators containing distilled water, and spread as a single